Books and Publications

Books by Model Developer Patricia Chamberlain, Ph.D.

Peer Reviewed Journal Articles


Chor, B.; Kakuyama-Villaber, R.; Burkhardt, T.; et al. “Lessons from the Evaluation of the Therapeutic Foster Care Pilot in Illinois.” Chapin Hall, 2023.


Leve, Leslie D.; Schweer-Collins, Maria; Bates, Elizabeth (2022) Criminal Offense Charges in Women: A 10-year Follow-up of an RCT of Treatment Foster Care Oregon. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. View PDF.

Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Ervik-Jeannin, Rebecca (2022) Treatment Foster Care Oregon (TFCO): Preliminary Results from a Study among Norwegian Youths. MDPI Journals.

Broadhead, Jaimie; Broten, Kym; Day, Ana; Kuhn, Nicolle; Wheeler, Alice (2022) Oregon Community Programs Treatment Foster Parents. View PDF.


Saldana, Lisa; Campbell, Mark; Leve, Leslie; Chamberlain, Patricia (2019) Long-Term Economic Benefit of Treatment Foster Care Oregon (TFCO) for Adolescent Females Referred to Congregate Care for Delinquency. Abstract – Source: Child Welfare . 2019, Vol. 97 Issue 5, p179-195. 17p.

Raymond V.Gutterswijk, Chris H.Z. Kuiper, Navisha Lautan, Elsemieke G.Kunst, Frank C.P. van der Horst, Geert Jan J.M. Stams, Peter Prinzie (2019) The outcome of non-residential youth care compared to residential youth care: A multilevel meta-analysis ( online 20 March 2020.

Therese Åström , Martin Bergström , Kickan Håkansson, Ann Kristine Jonsson, Christian Munthe, Ingegerd Wirtberg, Johanna Wiss, Knut Sundell (2019): Treatment Foster Care Oregon for Delinquent Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (, DOI: 10.1177/1049731519890394. Published online: 26 Dec 2019.


Bergström, M., & Höjman, L. (2015): Is multidimensional treatment foster care (MTFC) more effective than treatment as usual in a three-year follow-up? Results from MTFC in a Swedish setting, European Journal of Social Work, DOI: 10.1080/13691457.2015.1030361. Published online: 10 Apr 2015.


Poulton, R., Van Ryzin, M.J., Harold, G.T., Chamberlain, P., Fowler, D., Cannon, M., Arseneault, L., Leve, L.D., (2014). Effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care on psychotic symptoms in girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2014), doi: 10.1016/ j.jaac.2014.08.014.


Welsh, B.C., Lipsey, M.W., Rivara, F.P., Hawkins, J.D., Aos, S., Peel, M.E., & Petechuk, D. (2013). Bulletin 6: Changing lives: Prevention and intervention to reduce serious offending (Study Group on the Transitions Between Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Crime), 2013,

Rhoades, K. A., Leve, L., Harold, G. T., Kim, H., & Chamberlain, P.  (2013). (Proof) Drug use trajectories after a randomized controlled trial of MTFC: Associations with partner drug use. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 1-15.

Rhoades, K. A., Chamberlain, P., Roberts, R., & Leve, L. (2013). MTFC for high-risk adolescent girls: A comparison of outcomes in England and the United States.  Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 22:435-449, 2013.  ISSN: 1067-828X print/1547-0652 online  DOI: 10.1080/1067828X.2013.788887.

Harold, G., Kerr, D., Van Ryzin, M., DeGarmo, D., Rhoades, K., & Leve L. (2013). Depressive symptom trajectories among girls in the juvenile justice system: 24-month outcomes of an RCT of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care. Prevention Science, published online February 17, 2013


Leve, L., Harold, G. T., Chamberlain, P., Landsverk, J. A., Fisher, P. A., & Vostanis, P.  (2012). Practitioner review: Children in foster care – vulnerabilities and evidence-based interventions that promote resilience processes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53:12 (2012), pp 1197-1211.

Jonkman, C., Bolle, E., Lindeboom, R., Schuengel, C., Oosterman, M., Boer, F., & Lindauer, J.L. (2012). (provisional pdf) Multidimensional treatment foster care for preschoolers: Early findings of an implementation in the Netherlands.  Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2012, 6:38 doi:10.1186/1753-2000-6-38, December 2012. Program Helps Troubled Boys Reduce Substance Abuse, NIDA Notes, December 2011


Henggeler, S., & Schoenwald, S. (2011). Evidence-based interventions for juvenile offenders and juvenile justice
policies that support them. Social Policy Report, volume 25, number 1, 2011


Smith, D., Chamberlain, P., & Eddy, M.  (2010). Preliminary support for Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care in reducing substance use in delinquent boys.  Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 19:343-358.2010

Westermark, P. K., Hansson, K., & Olsson, M. (2010). Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC): Results from an independent replication. Journal of Family Therapy (2010) 1-23, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6427.2010.00515.x

Fisher, P., Tininenko, J., Bruce, J., & Pears, K. (2010). Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development.


Leve, L., Fisher, P., & Chamberlain, P. (2009). Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care as a preventive intervention to promote resiliency among youth in the child welfare system. Journal of Personality 77:6, December 2009

Fisher, P., Chamberlain, P., Leve, L. Improving the lives of foster children through evidenced-based interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, June 2009, 122-127

Kerr, D., Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2009) Pregnancy rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in two randomized controlled trials of MTFC. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2009, Vol. 77. No. 3, 588-593.

Fisher, P., Kim, H., & Pears, K. (2009) Effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) on reducing permanent placement failures among children with placement instability. 0190-7409/ – see front matter.  Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2008.10.012


Bruce, J., McDermott, J., Fisher, P., & Fox, N. (2008). Using Behavioral Electrophysiological measures to Assess the Effects of a Preventive Intervention:  A Preliminary Study with Preschool-Aged Foster Children. Society for Prevention Research 2008, Published 22 November 2008.

Westermark, P., Hannsson, K., & Vinnerljung, B. (2008) Does MTFC reduce placement breakdown in foster care? International Journal of Child & Family Welfare, 2008/4, page 155-171.

Chamberlain, P., Brown, C. H., Saldana, L., Reid, J., Wang, W., Marsenich, L., Sosna, T., Padgett, C., & Bouwman, G. (2008). Engaging and recruiting counties in an experiment on implementing evidence-based practice in California. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Research, 35(4), 250-260.

Chamberlain, P., Price, J., Leve, L. D., Laurent, H., Landsverk, J. A., & Reid, J. B. (2008). Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: Outcomes and mediation effects. Prevention Science, 9, 17-27.

Magellan Health Services Children’s Services Task Force. (2008). Perspectives on Residential and Community-Based Treatment for Youth and Families.

Price, J. M., Chamberlain, P., Landsverk, J., Reid, J., Leve, L., & Laurent, H. (2008). Effects of a foster parent training intervention on placement changes of children in foster care. Child Maltreatment, 13, 64-75.

Fisher, P. A., & Stoolmiller, M. (2008). Intervention effects on foster parent stress: Associations with child cortisol levels. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 1003-1021.


Gustle L-H, Hansson K, Sundell K, Lundh L-G, Lofholm CA. Blueprints in Sweden. Symptom load in Swedish adolescents in studies of Functional Family Therapy (FFT), Multisystemic Therapy (MST) and Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC). Nord J Psychiatry 2007;61: 443_451. Oslo. ISSN 0803-9488.

Christeson, W., Kass, D., &Wiley, M. (2007). Getting Juvenile Justice Right in New York: Proven Interventions Will Cut Crime and Save Money. Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, New York

Chamberlain, P., Leve, L. D., & DeGarmo, D.S. (2007). Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for girls in the juvenile justice system: 2-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75 (1), 187-193.

Fisher, P. A., Stoolmiller, M., Gunnar, M. R., & Burraston, B. O. (2007) Effects of a therapeutic intervention for foster preschoolers on diurnal cortisol activity. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2007) 32, 892-905.

Fisher, P. A., & Kim, H. K. (2007). Intervention effects on foster preschoolers’ attachment-related behaviors from a randomized trial. Prevention Science, 8, 161-170.


Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2006). A randomized evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on school attendance and homework completion in juvenile justice girls. Research on Social Work Practice, Vol. X No. X, July 2006 1-7.

Chamberlain, P., Leve, L. D., & Smith, D. K. (2006). Preventing behavior problems and health-risking behaviors in girls in foster care. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. 2(4), 518-530.

Chamberlain, P., Price, J. M., Reid, J. B., Landsverk, J., Fisher, P.A., & Stoolmiller, M. (2006). Who disrupts from placement in foster and kinship care? Child Abuse and Neglect, 30, 409-424.

Dore, M. M., & Mullin, D. (2006). Treatment Family Foster Care: Its History and Current Role in the Foster Care Continuum. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services.

Fisher, P. A., Gunnar, M. R., Dozier, M., Bruce, J., & Pears, K. C. (2006). Effects of a therapeutic intervention for foster children on behavior problems, caregiver attachment, and stress regulatory neural systems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 215-225.

Smith, D. K., Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2006). Adolescent offending and health-risking sexual behavior: The predictive role of trauma. Child Maltreatment, 11, 346-353.

Stock, C., & Fisher, P., (2006).  Language Delays Among Foster Children: Implications for Policy and Practice.  0009-4021/2006/030445-17. 2006 Child Welfare League of America.

Aos, S., Miller, M., & Drake, E. (2006). Evidence-based public policy options to reduce future prison construction, criminal justice costs, and crime rates.  Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy, October 2006, 1-44.


Antoine, K., & Fisher, P. A. (2005).  Meeting the special needs of young foster children. Principal, November/December 2005, 36-40.

Barth, R. P., Landsverk, J., Chamberlain, P., Reid, J. B., Rolls, J. A., Hurlburt, M. S., Farmer, E. M. Z., James, S., McCabe, K. M., & Kohl, P. L. (2005). Parent training in child welfare services: Planning for a more evidence-based approach to serving biological parents. Research on Social Work Practice, 15(5), 353-371.

Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J.B. (2005). Intervention outcomes for girls referred from juvenile justice: Effects on delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(6), 1181-1185.

Fisher, P. A., Burraston, B., & Pears, K. (2005). The Early Intervention Foster Care program: Permanent placement outcomes from a randomized trial. Child Maltreatment, 10, 61-71.

Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2005). Association with delinquent peers: Intervention effects for youth in out-of-home care. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(3), 339-347.


Smith, D. Risk, Reinforcement, Retention in Treatment, and Reoffending for Boys and Girls in Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care.  Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, Spring 2004, Vol. 12. No. 1, Pages 38-48.

Eddy, M. J., Bridges Whaley, R., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). The prevention of violent behavior by chronic and serious male juvenile offenders: A 2-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(1), 2-8.

Leve, L. D. & Chamberlain, P. (2004). Female juvenile offenders: Defining an early-onset pathway for delinquency. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 13, 439-452.


Fisher, P. A. (2003).  Special Parents for Special Children. Research to Practice, July/August 2003, 18-19.

Chamberlain, P. (2003). The Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model: Features, outcomes, and progress in dissemination. In S. Schoenwald & S. Henggeler (Series Eds.), Moving evidence-based treatments from the laboratory into clinical practice. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 10(4), 303-312.


Dozier, M., Albus, K., Fisher, P. A., & Sepulveda, S. (2002). Interventions for foster parents: Implications for developmental theory. Development and Psychology, 14, 843-860.


Moore, K. J., Sprengelmeyer, P. G., & Chamberlain, P. (2001). Community-based treatment for adjudicated delinquents: The Oregon Social Learning Center’s “Monitor” Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care program. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 18(3), 87-97.

Smith, D. K., Stormshak, E., Chamberlain, P., & Bridges-Whaley, R. (2001). Placement disruption in treatment foster care. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 9, 200-205.


Eddy, J. M., & Chamberlain, P. (2000). Family management and deviant peer association as mediators of the impact of treatment condition on youth antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 5(68), 857-863.

Fisher, P. A., & Chamberlain, P. (2000). Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: A program for intensive parenting, family support, and skill building. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8, 155-164. [Also appears in H. M. Walker & M. H. Epstein (Eds.), Making schools safer and violence free: Critical issues, solutions, and recommended practices. A compilation of articles from Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (pp. 140-149). Austin, TX: Pro-ed.]

Fisher, P. A., Gunnar, M. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (2000). Preventive intervention for maltreated preschool children: Impact on children’s behavior, neuroendocrine activity, and foster parent functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(11), 1356-1364.


Fisher, P. A., Ellis, B. H., & Chamberlain, P. (1999). Early intervention foster care: A model for preventing risk in young children who have been maltreated. Children services: Social policy, research, and practice, 2(3), 159-182.


Chamberlain, P. (1998). Treatment foster care. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin, December 1998, 1-11.

Chamberlain, P., & Moore, K. J. (1998). A clinical model of parenting juvenile offenders: A comparison of group versus family care. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 3(3), 375-386.

Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. (1998). Comparison of two community alternatives to incarceration for chronic juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 6(4), 624-633.


Capaldi, D. M., Chamberlain, P., Fetrow, R. A., & Wilson, J. E. (1997). Conducting ecologically valid prevention research: Recruiting and retaining a “whole village” in multimethod, multiagent studies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 471-492.


Chamberlain, P., Ray, J., & Moore, K. J. (1996). Characteristics of residential care for adolescent offenders: A comparison of assumptions and practices in two models. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 5, 259-271.


Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. (1994). Differences in risk factors and adjustment for male and female delinquents in treatment foster care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 3, 23-29.

Meadowcroft, P., Thomlinson, B., & Chamberlain, P. (1994). Treatment foster care services: A research agenda for child welfare. Child Welfare, 3, 565-581.

Moore, K. J., & Chamberlain, P. (1994). Treatment foster care: Toward development of community-based models for adolescents with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2, 22-30.

Moore, K. J., Osgood, W. D., Larselere, R. E., & Chamberlain, P. (1994). Use of pooled time series in the study of naturally occurring clinical event and problem behavior in a foster care setting. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 718-728.


Chamberlain, P., Moreland, S., & Reid, K. (1992). Enhanced services and stipends for foster parents: Effects on retention rates and outcomes for children. Child Welfare, 5, 387-401.


Chamberlain, P. & Reid, J. B. (1991). Using a specialized foster care treatment model for children and adolescents leaving the state mental hospital. Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 266-276.


Chamberlain, P. (1990). Comparative evaluation of Specialized Foster Care for seriously delinquent youths: A first step. Community Alternatives: International Journal of Family Care, 2(2), 21-36.

Chamberlain, P., & Weinrott, M. R. (1990). Specialized foster care: Treating seriously emotionally disturbed childrenChildren Today, 19, 24-27.